Kitae – Body Conditioning

Body Conditioning in Okinawan Martial Arts.

Okinawan martial arts are renowned for their comprehensive approach to training, which encompasses not only technique and strategy but also physical conditioning. A crucial aspect of this conditioning is the practice of “kitae,” a term that refers to specific exercises aimed at strengthening and toughening different parts of the body. In styles like Uechi-ryu, Goju-ryu and Shorin-ryu, practitioners engage in various forms of “kitae” to prepare their bodies for effective martial arts techniques and to cultivate resilience and discipline.

The Four Types of “Kitae”.

In Okinawan Karate, practitioners delve into the practice of four distinct “kitae” exercises, each targeting a specific area of the body:

Kote Kitae – Forearm Conditioning.

“Kote” translates to “forearm” in Japanese. In “Kote Kitae,” practitioners engage in exercises designed to toughen the forearms, enhancing their ability to withstand strikes, blocks, and parries. These conditioning drills not only strengthen the muscles but also harden the bones, creating a foundation for effective hand-to-hand combat techniques.

Hara Kitae – Abdomen Conditioning.

“Hara” refers to the abdomen, the core of the body. Through “Hara Kitae,” martial artists engage in exercises that target the core muscles, developing a resilient midsection capable of absorbing impacts. This conditioning not only provides physical strength but also cultivates mental fortitude, preparing practitioners to face challenges head-on.

Ashi Kitae – Leg Conditioning.

“Ashi” signifies the legs, a vital component of martial arts movements. “Ashi Kitae” involves exercises that enhance the strength, flexibility, and endurance of the legs. This conditioning is crucial for maintaining stable stances, executing powerful kicks, and swiftly manoeuvring during combat scenarios.

Sune Kitae – Shin Conditioning.

“Sune” refers to the shins, an often overlooked but essential part of combat training. In “Sune Kitae,” practitioners condition their shins to become more resilient to impact. This conditioning is especially valuable for those who employ kicking techniques, reducing the risk of injury during high-impact kicks.

Importance and Benefits of “Kitae”.

The practice of “kitae” serves several significant purposes within Okinawan martial arts:

Physical Resilience.

“Kitae” exercises build physical resilience, making the body more capable of withstanding the demands of combat. The strengthened muscles, bones, and core contribute to effective defence and offence techniques.

Mental Discipline.

Engaging in intense conditioning fosters mental discipline and determination. Practitioners learn to push through discomfort, enhancing their mental toughness in both training and real-world situations.

Skill Enhancement.

Well-conditioned body parts enable practitioners to execute techniques with greater precision, power, and control. The foundation of strength allows for the mastery of martial arts techniques.

Injury Prevention.

Conditioning minimizes the risk of injuries. Strengthened forearms, abdomen, legs, and shins reduce the likelihood of damage during high-impact movements.

How to exercise.

Presented below is a selection of fundamental drills, providing a foundation for various adaptations of “Kitae.”

Forearm Conditioning – Simultaneous Gedan-Barai Drill:


  • Simultaneously, both partners perform gedan-barai (downward block) towards each other’s forearms, with the aim of making controlled contact.
  • Both parties gently absorb the impact of the blocks.

Purpose: This exercise strengthens the forearm muscles and bones, enhancing their ability to block effectively. It also emphasizes correct gedan-barai technique, helping practitioners refine their form and timing.

Safety: Maintain controlled force throughout the exercise and maintain clear communication with your partner. Gradually increase the intensity as both participants become more comfortable with the blocks.

Note: The same procedure can be applied with Soto-uke and Ushi-uke.

Leg Conditioning – Alternate Execution of Kicks:


  • Alternate kicking the inside (or outside) of the thigh.
  • The person being kicked gently absorbs the impact using their leg muscles.
  • Focus on engaging leg muscles to handle the impact.

Purpose: This exercise conditions the inner (or outer) thigh muscles. By focusing on absorbing impact, participants develop stronger leg muscles and improve kick accuracy.

Safety: Maintain controlled force throughout the exercise and communicate clearly with your partner. Gradually increase the intensity as both participants become more comfortable with the kicks.

Note: The same procedure can be applied with the shin (sune).

Hara Kitae – Controlled Abdomen Strikes:


  • Stand facing each other, maintaining a steady stance.
  • One person delivers controlled strikes (tsuki) to the abdomen of the other person.
  • The recipient focuses on maintaining stability and gently absorbing the strikes using their core muscles.

Purpose: This exercise conditions the abdominal muscles for impact absorption and strengthening. It enhances the practitioner’s ability to stay composed and relaxed while being struck.

Safety: Maintain controlled force and communicate clearly with your partner. Start with light strikes and gradually increase intensity as both participants become more comfortable.

Note: This exercise can be practised using various striking techniques, such as open-palm strikes or closed-fist punches.


Watch the video for some visual examples of body conditioning with or without a partner.


The incorporation of “Kitae” practices in Okinawan martial arts training, exemplified by styles like Uechi-ryu, Goju-ryu and Shorin-ryu, underscores the comprehensive approach these disciplines take toward physical and mental development. By targeting specific areas of the body through the forearm, abdomen, leg, and shin conditioning, practitioners not only enhance their combat capabilities but also cultivate the discipline and resilience that define a true martial artist. These practices stand as a testament to the depth and sophistication of traditional martial arts, emphasizing the importance of a well-conditioned body in achieving martial mastery.


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